web analytics

NRT: More police crime

Written By: - Date published: 2:57 pm, October 17th, 2013 - 25 comments
Categories: crime, police - Tags: ,

no-right-turn-256No Right Turn reports on a case that is symptomatic of just how out of control the police in NZ are getting. The response of Wellington’s Tactical Policing Unit was both completely disturbing in its use of violence to try to create the type of incident that they were expecting. The police lying, not only to the public, but also to themselves about the actions is even worse. If there are no prosecutions and stiff sentences for the officers involved, then it is time to start actively initiate a program of private prosecutions of individual police.

Back in 2009 Police were called to an “out of control” party in Wellington. When they got there, they found that, contrary to reports, there was no fighting in the street outside. The hosts told them there was no problem, and that they did not need assistance. The police did not believe them. So they broke into the house, smashing windows in the process, and beat those inside to get them to disperse – in the process breaking someone’s neck. In the aftermath, when people complained to them and the IPCA, they leaked information about them in an effort to discredit them. And now the Independent Police Conduct Authority has ruled that all of that was unlawful:

An Independent Police Conduct Authority report has found that Police acted contrary to law in entering a private residence on Homebush Road, Khandallah, Wellington in the early hours of 5 September 2009.

The Authority today released the results of its independent investigation into the actions of members of the Tactical Policing Unit who shut down the private party using unnecessary, excessive force in the process.

[…]

Independent Police Conduct Authority Chair Judge Sir David Carruthers said today although the Tactical Policing Unit was responding to a call from a partygoer concerned about the behaviour of gatecrashers, the decision to close the party down was contrary to law.

“The force used to remove partygoers from the house in an effort to shut down the party was also excessive and contrary to law.

“The action of a Tactical Policing Unit officer in striking one of the partygoers with a baton, using excessive force, was also contrary to law. Medical records show that this young man sustained a displaced fracture of the C7 spinous process, or a broken neck, as a result of the officer’s action,” Sir David said.

Miraculously, the police, who just last year had published a self-serving whitewash clearing all their officers of any wrongdoing, have now accepted the IPCA’s findings. Which raises an obvious question: will the officers involved face charges? Because looking at their description of events, there are prima facie cases for trespass, criminal damage, burglaryaggravated burglary (“burglary with a weapon”), assault, injuring with intent and wounding with intent. Not to mention misuse of official information.

The police must obey the law. If they don’t, they are nothing more than a gang with a fancy uniform (and that’s exactly how they have behaved in this incident). Sadly, the police don’t give us much cause for confidence here: the IPCA specifically finds they unjustly apply a different standard to investigating their own officers than to ordinary members of the public. But if the police won’t uphold the law, then the people will have to – through private prosecutions.

The IPCA is also recommending changes around how the police deal with parties. Good. The current situation – where the police apparently regard parties as riots in progress, demand that they be “registered” (implying that you need their permission to exercise your freedom of assembly in your own home), and shut them down on a whim – is a cause of public disorder, not a cure for it. The police need to change their approach. The question is whether they’ll learn their lesson, or continue with the same pig-headed approach which has caused these problems.

 

Updated: NRT has another post about the police response. 

A gap that needs to be filled

Earlier today the Independent Police Conduct Authority released a damning report about an incident in which police had unlawfully trespassed, broken into a house, and beaten people (breaking someone’s neck in the process) to unlawfully shut down a party. the police’s response? A giant “fuck you”:

Despite breaking the law by entering the house, Nicholls said none of the 11 officers involved had been, or would be, disciplined.

“Our belief is the police acted in good faith in terms of entering the property.”

So, despite several apparent crimes being committed – including aggravated burglary – the police won’t even discipline, let alone prosecute their own.

The Police refusing to hold their own to account is a constant problem. We need a solution. We need an NGO dedicated to mounting private prosecutions, to hold the police to account when they won’t do it themselves.

But its not just the police. We also need an NGO to enforce electoral law, because the Police have repeatedly shown that they are unwilling to do so. It should not have been left to Graham McCready to bring a case against John Banks. And cases should have been brought against both Labour and National in 2005 for overspending.

The fact that we now need a body like this is an indictment on our justice system. But its where we’re at. Who’s up for it?

Indeed. 

25 comments on “NRT: More police crime”

  1. McFlock 1

    I wonder if McCready wants to take on the cops? 🙂

    • lprent 1.1

      I’d be willing to donate towards the cause.

      Clearly the police are incompetent to deal with their own when they refuse to deal with officers capable of this kind of crap. The IPCA has no power to lay charges. The government’s legal offices can’t as far as I’m aware.

      It means that no-one is held accountable for either the police assault or the the subsequent attempt to cover up the seriousness of the assault and it’s consequences. Justice is not seen to be done. In fact it is trampled underfoot by those who are meant to uphold it.

      Who is left apart from the public prosecution of police?

      • Ennui 1.1.1

        It would make extremely good Labour policy to announce policies to strengthen public respect for the police, after all if we cant trust them who can we trust?

        The trick is to raise the bar with regard to the public’s expectations of the police, after all they are our heroes so there would be no problem with a revamped IPCA that can demonstrate, (independently of course) that the cops meet our high expectations. Of course when they don’t the newly announced teeth for the IPCA would get rid of “bad eggs”. Of course the Lor’in’orda bigots would object but would be easily silenced by “the law is the law and our Police heroes abide by it, cos they are the good guys”.

  2. richard 2

    This is disturbing:

    Despite breaking the law by entering the house, Nicholls said none of the 11 officers involved had been, or would be, disciplined.

    Either the police at the scene are blind and didn’t see one of their colleagues cracking someone on the back of the head with a baton or at least one of them did and lied along with the perpetrator.

    And then this:

    The authority had also investigated a complaint that unauthorised material was sent to a media outlet after the incident.

    The release had been made to discredit a complainant, but the administrator who leaked the information had left the police, Judge Carruthers said.

    So will this person be prosecuted?
    http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/9294502/Police-used-excessive-force-report

    Edit: the post update happened while I was writing this.

  3. Red Rosa 3

    Deeply disturbing. NRT has earlier pointed to this ChCh story

    http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/9223382/Compo-for-horrific-police-beating

  4. tc 4

    Seems rickard/shipton could be the tip of an ugly iceberg everyone keeps sailing around. remember how high up rickard was.

    • greywarbler 4.1

      And what a bad look that was for the name Rickard. When I saw the Rickard name still involved with the police a short while ago, it brought very unpleasant memories. Eva Rickard was a Maori worker for return of land and gained great respect. Then that name was besmirched by muscle-boy, sports-jock, coupled with pack and power, bad behaviour.

  5. Treetop 5

    Just look at this link

    http://disidento.wordpress.com/2013/08/07/secret-inquiry/

    The letter dated 7 August 2013 from the Privacy Commissioner who agrees with the police is the reason an independent tribunal is required to get to the bottom of the ROT.

    http://obrien.wordpress.com/legal/privacy-commissioner/2/

    What next for O’Brien?

    Police do not up hold the law by breaking it.

  6. Peter 6

    There’s one other thing we need the NGO for too – environmental prosecutions, when central and local government won’t act against polluters.

  7. Anne 7

    Just left this in “The fish rots from the head” but is relevant (sort of) here as well:

    Another example of the police turning a blind eye to political skulduggery

  8. QoT 8

    Because acting in good faith and not intending to break the law are excuses that work so well when you’re not a cop. :roll:

  9. Tracey 9

    the police say they dont know who actually hit hi,. of course the commissioner called them all in and said

    if you dont tell me by 4pm which one of you did it, you are all suspended.

  10. Adele 10

    Kiaora koutou katoa

    I think today’s policing is reflective of rushed training and poor recruiting methods. The Police should strengthen their psychological profiling as it appears that they have well exceeded their quota of sociopaths.

    There has always been an element of brutality in the Police.

    Like moths to a flame, paedophiles to a school – sociopaths are attracted to occupations that allow them free reign on perpetrators – not victims. The law gives them the excuse, and when it doesn’t – simply pretend that it does, and say “whoops, a wee mistake,” never-mind.

    This disturbing element in the Police has always existed. Well, since colonisation. Before colonisation, Māori society was well regulated. The threat of being dismembered was incredibly motivational towards peace, love and harmony. Seriously, and actually, banishment from whānau and hapū was the greatest punishment tangata whenua could suffer – it was worse than being dead.

    Back to the Police.

    Bashing on kids is not a good look. Those in the Police who are not sociopaths should right the night otherwise you are guilty by omission. Eleven policemen participated in the raid and not one of them actually knew the law – so says the Big Commander. They acted in good faith.

    Faith above the law. Poor training, rushed recruiting and perhaps also befuddled leadership.

    • Treetop 10.1

      “Bashing on kids is not a good look.”

      Entering a property unlawfully and then swinging a batton in a narrow hallway, from the start errors were made which puts the reputation of all of the officers at the scene in the spotlight.

      It is my understanding that only four officers were interviewed.

      I would like to know why the four were chosen to be interviewed and why all of the officers at the scene were not interviewed?

      The situation is that four years down the track the man who had his neck fractured is still waiting for justice to be delivered and PNHQ are carrying on as if the aggravated assault did not occur or cause an injury.

      I also would like to know what involvement Marshall has had in this as the incident occurred under Broad?

      What really pisses me off is that the police (PNHQ) are deluded in thinking that the decision from the IPCA does not point the finger at them and that the police have failed to do their duty.

  11. Murray Olsen 11

    If someone comes up with an idea that’ll go somewhere, I’ll contribute.

  12. Sable 12

    There’s nothing independent about the police complaints authority and that is the crux of the problem. The good cops can not complain and the public have no voice so the bad apples stay in the barrel.

    The real question is why have we not got an independent authority like so many other countries? My view is if the police were reformed then the dirty political elements would have no one to do their bidding. The police might even be inclined to say “no” to actions like the Kim Dotcom affair.

    The problems with our police who used to do such a good job are symptomatic of a general failing of our political system and the pretty blatant corruption seeping into government.

    • tc 12.1

      Because they do such a great job it’s not needed (sarc) and anyway the police are doing just fine by the NACT standards.

      Same reason crusher doesn’t see the need for a media watchdog as they’re such bastions of good behaviour and intellect.

    • Murray Olsen 12.2

      Any cops who even look like they might do some whistle blowing at some stage are harassed out of the force. They take the same approach to this as the gangs.

    • Ugly Truth 12.3

      Public voice isn’t unattainable, and cops, as members of the public, can participate in this.

      To have real authority the right to act cannot be assumed.

      IMO identifying the criminals would be good first step.

Links to post

Recent Comments

Recent Posts

  • Labour and Greens sign historic agreement to change the Government
    The Labour Party and the Green Party have announced today they have signed an historic agreement to work cooperatively to change the Government. The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the parties commits them to working cooperatively to change the Government… ...
    13 hours ago
  • Budget ignores vital role of quality ECE
    Last night I watched a fascinating programme about the Otago University 45 year study of 1000 New Zealanders. It concluded that there are ways to intervene and support people who are at risk of becoming violent. One of the key… ...
    GreensBy Catherine Delahunty
    1 day ago
  • More ice for Radio NZ in Budget
    Budget 2016 once again left our only public broadcaster, Radio NZ (RNZ), worse off. After eight years of funding freezes, you have to wonder if RNZ is being iced-out for ideological reasons. I believe public broadcasting is an important cornerstone… ...
    GreensBy Gareth Hughes
    2 days ago
  • Fisheries inquiry must be widened to include Trident
    The Government must widen its inquiry into the Ministry for Primary Industries to include its awarding of a company owned by Sanford and Moana Pacific Fisheries to monitor commercial fishing vessels, Labour’s Fisheries spokesperson Rino Tirikatene says. The Ministry for… ...
    2 days ago
  • Government spend up on state house sell off
    The Government has spent $28.9 million and has 129 officials working on its misguided state house sell-off, says Labour’s housing spokesperson Phil Twyford.  “This is a scandalous waste of taxpayers’ money on a policy that won’t deliver a single extra… ...
    3 days ago
  • Housing crisis has huge impact on education
    The National Government’s failure to get on top of the housing crisis is having a major impact on the quality of education a lot of school kids are getting, Labour’s Education spokesperson Chris Hipkins says.  “There are thousands of kids… ...
    3 days ago
  • Minister celebrates while arts organisations face cuts
    Maggie Barry was full of self-congratulations for her small arts announcement in the budget, ignoring the pain that a large number of organisations are facing due to her inaction, says Arts, Culture, Heritage spokesperson Jacinda Ardern.  “The Budget delivered a… ...
    3 days ago
  • Regions miss out again in Joyce’s Koru Lounge Fund
      The regions have missed out yet again with Steven Joyce offering just $10m a year for key regional development projects while trumpeting a bunch of re-heated announcements, says Labour’s Economic Development spokesperson David Clark. “The dairy downturn has put… ...
    4 days ago
  • Children’s Commissioner misses out in Budget
      The Office of the Children’s Commissioner has missed out on a much needed boost in this year’s Budget, meaning they will be forced to continue their reduced monitoring role of CYFs residences, says Labour’s spokesperson for Children Jacinda Ardern. … ...
    4 days ago
  • Communities miss out in Budget
    Budget 2017 has left community and NGO providers feeling exposed about the services they provide to vulnerable families especially in smaller towns and communities, says Labour’s Whānau Ora Spokesperson Nanaia Mahuta. “Approximately $40m will go into Whānau Ora to work… ...
    4 days ago
  • Budget2016: Two Worlds
    Sometimes I feel as if I live in two worlds. The world created by the National Government where everything is great and they’re doing a great job and the world as seen through the eyes of child advocates, community workers,… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie
    5 days ago
  • Parekura would be proud – MTS gets boost
    The Labour Party is ecstatic that the Māori Party have shown support for one of Labour’s proudest policies, says Labour’s Māori Broadcasting Spokesperson Peeni Henare.  “The Māori Television Service was launched in 2004 by the late Hon Parekura Horomia. ...
    5 days ago
  • Māori housing in state of emergency
    The Government needs to declare a state of emergency for Māori Housing, says Labour’s Māori Development spokesperson and Te Tai Tokerau MP Kelvin Davis. “The extra $3 million a year Māori Housing Network fund will not scratch the surface in… ...
    5 days ago
  • State house sell off in disarray after provider pulls out
     The Government should cancel its planned sell-off of state houses after the second big community housing provider pulled out leaving the process in disarray, says Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford.  “It is time for the Government to back away from… ...
    5 days ago
  • Nothing in Budget to help police to solve crime
    The Police Minister has failed to make communities safer with virtually no new money in yesterday’s Budget for police to address the appalling burglary resolution rates, says Labour’s Police spokesperson Stuart Nash.  “It’s a disgrace there’s no money or aspiration… ...
    5 days ago
  • Blog – Budget 2016: What about ordinary working people?
    Ordinary working New Zealanders don’t fare very well from this Budget. Setting aside the spin from the Government, it contains a lot to be concerned about and a fudging of the numbers. Green Party workplace relations spokesperson Denise Roche For… ...
    GreensBy Denise Roche
    5 days ago
  • Real wages go backwards for next two years
    New Zealanders’ real wages will fall for the next two years as the cost of living outpaces forecast pay rises, says Leader of the Opposition Andrew Little. “New Zealanders have been doing it tough for far too long. They expect… ...
    5 days ago
  • The Attack on Public Education – by a thousand cuts
    Budget 2016 is another step towards the free public education system being a memory from the past. The Budget freezes the operations grant for schools and does not sufficiently cover the real increase in numbers of students entering the education system.… ...
    GreensBy Catherine Delahunty
    5 days ago
  • The Attack on Public Education – by a thousand cuts
    Budget 2016 is another step towards the free public education system being a memory from the past. The Budget freezes the operations grant for schools and does not sufficiently cover the real increase in numbers of students entering the education system.… ...
    GreensBy Catherine Delahunty
    5 days ago
  • The give with one hand – take with the other Budget
    The Minister of Health has pumped out media releases to 20 District Health Boards heralding increases in funding for their regions, says Labour’s Health spokesperson Annette King. “But when you add population growth and inflation into the figures you get… ...
    5 days ago
  • Budget offers no hope of fixing housing crisis
    The Budget’s underwhelming housing measures will give New Zealanders no hope that National is capable of fixing the housing crisis, Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford says. “There isn’t a scrap of an idea to help desperate young Kiwi families into… ...
    5 days ago
  • How the budget fails new New Zealanders
    Greens co-leader James Shaw was absolutely correct to say the 2016 budget is just papering over the cracks. There’s nothing in this budget to increase wages, address inequal pay for carers or deal with the shocking pay rates and employment… ...
    GreensBy Denise Roche
    5 days ago
  • Parents will pay more as school budgets frozen
    Parents will pay more for their kids’ education as a result of this year’s Budget after the Government froze operational funding for schools, Labour’s Education spokesperson Chris Hipkins says. “This means schools are effectively going backwards. They will need to… ...
    5 days ago
  • Sticking Plaster Budget fails the test
    Bill English’s penultimate Budget fails to tackle the structural challenges facing the economy – a housing crisis, rising unemployment, underfunded health and creaking infrastructure, says Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson. “This Budget applies a sticking plaster to a compound fracture.… ...
    6 days ago
  • John Key fails middle New Zealand with no fix for housing crisis, more underfunding of health
    Middle New Zealand has again missed out in this year’s Budget with not a single fix for the housing crisis, and health and education woefully underfunded again, Leader of the Opposition Andrew Little says. “This Budget is just a patchwork… ...
    6 days ago
  • Labour Bill would back Kiwi jobs
    The Government’s $40 billion of buying power would go towards backing Kiwi businesses and jobs under a Labour Member’s Bill which will be debated by Parliament, Leader of the Opposition Andrew Little says. “My Bill – which was pulled from… ...
    6 days ago
  • Julie Anne Genter: My Budget 2016 wish is fairness
    When my parents first visited me in Auckland ten years ago, they remarked on how there were no homeless people on the streets. Coming from Los Angeles, they were used to seeing the impacts of horrendous inequality and a lack… ...
    GreensBy Julie Anne Genter
    6 days ago
  • Steffan Browning: Pesticide reduction and Organic Growth Strategy in Budget 2016
    Pesticide reduction The Budget is an opportunity for the Government to launch a pesticide reduction strategy that multiplies the Environmental Protection Authority’s (EPA) and the Ministry for Primary Industries’ capacity to reassess pesticides and other toxins.  The Agricultural Compounds and… ...
    GreensBy Steffan Browning
    6 days ago
  • Steffan Browning: Pesticide reduction and Organic Growth Strategy in Budget 2016
    Pesticide reduction The Budget is an opportunity for the Government to launch a pesticide reduction strategy that multiplies the Environmental Protection Authority’s (EPA) and the Ministry for Primary Industries’ capacity to reassess pesticides and other toxins.  The Agricultural Compounds and… ...
    GreensBy Steffan Browning
    6 days ago
  • Minister won’t fess up on wrong figures
    The Minister of Health was caught out telling porkies in Parliament today when he was asked about the number of people getting access to mental health and addiction services, says Labour’s Health spokesperson Annette King. ...
    6 days ago
  • Budget 2016 and our LGBTQI communities
    LGBTI people make up about a tenth of our population, and our communities face a unique set of needs and challenges. These challenges are caused or exacerbated by discrimination, invisibility and barriers to appropriate support. We have a long way… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie
    6 days ago
  • Budget 2016 and our LGBTQI communities
    LGBTI people make up about a tenth of our population, and our communities face a unique set of needs and challenges. These challenges are caused or exacerbated by discrimination, invisibility and barriers to appropriate support. We have a long way… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie
    6 days ago
  • Scrambled announcement policy on the hoof
    Paula Bennett’s scrambled desperate announcement that she will pay homeless people to move to the regions is just the latest evidence of the disarray this Government’s housing policy is in, Leader of the Opposition Andrew Little says. “This is policy… ...
    7 days ago
  • Police Minister admits resolution rates fall short of expectation
    Police Minister Judith Collins has admitted in Parliament current burglary resolution rates are not meeting the expectations of our communities, says Labour’s Police spokesman Stuart Nash “Out of 284 police stations in New Zealand in 2015, 24 stations recorded zero… ...
    7 days ago
  • Mojo Mathers: A better deal for animals in Budget 2016
    Currently we are failing animals in NZ. On the face of it farmed and domestic animals in this country have strong legal protection from abuse, cruelty and neglect. In reality it seems that only the very worst, most extreme cases… ...
    GreensBy Mojo Mathers
    7 days ago
  • Metiria Turei: What we need from Budget 2016
    Every family deserves a warm decent home.  Everyone believes that. This housing crisis is just the latest consequence of a Government who puts the interests of the few wealthy people above the needs of NZ families.  Families are doing it… ...
    GreensBy Metiria Turei
    7 days ago
  • Dairy exports fall of 11%: Budget action on diversification needed
    Dairy exports have fallen 11 per cent compared to this time last year, a fall of almost $1.5b, showing the Government must take clear action on diversifying the economy in tomorrow’s Budget, says Labour’s Trade and Export Growth spokesperson David… ...
    7 days ago
  • Investors driving families out of homes in South and West Auckland
    Investors cashing in on skyrocketing Auckland house prices are driving families out of homes in South and West Auckland and causing homeownership rates in some of our poorest suburbs to plummet, Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford says. “New analysis shows… ...
    7 days ago
  • Budget must deliver on paid parental leave
    Budget 2016 must deliver 26 weeks paid parental leave by April 2018 – anything less will be short-changing families, says Labour MP Sue Moroney. “My Bill which is before Parliament this afternoon has majority support and does just that. I… ...
    7 days ago
  • Key’s “brain fart” on tax cuts news to English
    John Key didn’t tell his own Finance Minister he was about to go on radio and announce he wanted $3b of tax cuts, just days after Bill English ruled them out, says Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson. “In Parliament today… ...
    1 week ago
  • What I’m looking for in Budget 2016 – A better start for our tamariki
    Ensuring the best start for our tamariki is a priority for me in everything I do. And so in Budget 2016, my first budget as an MP, I looking for the Government to make a real investment in the wellbeing… ...
    GreensBy Marama Davidson
    1 week ago
  • What I’m looking for in Budget 2016 – A better start for our tamariki
    Ensuring the best start for our tamariki is a priority for me in everything I do. And so in Budget 2016, my first budget as an MP, I looking for the Government to make a real investment in the wellbeing… ...
    GreensBy Marama Davidson
    1 week ago
  • Denise Roche: What I’m looking for in Budget 2016 Pt II
    Aotearoa’s new New Zealanders,  come to our country in vulnerable position: – often away from the culture, communities and families they know, sometimes in neighbourhoods without familiar faces and often encountering barriers to employment. With net migration at 50,000+ a… ...
    GreensBy Denise Roche
    1 week ago
  • Equal Pay and Budget 2016
    The last few years we’ve seen equal pay for women flagged as an undefined risk in the budget. This year we should expect to see this, as well as budgeted money to deliver equal pay to caregivers and funding for,… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie
    1 week ago
  • Equal Pay and Budget 2016
    The last few years we’ve seen equal pay for women flagged as an undefined risk in the budget. This year we should expect to see this, as well as budgeted money to deliver equal pay to caregivers and funding for,… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie
    1 week ago
  • A great Budget would
    A great Budget would embrace the challenge of our polluted rivers and move the money away from justifying the status quo water rules into cleaning up waterways. A great Budget would take the Ministry for the Environment freshwater budget and… ...
    GreensBy Catherine Delahunty
    1 week ago
  • Budget building materials policy backfires
    On the eve of this year’s Budget official figures show Nick Smith’s Budget 2014 centrepiece to reduce the cost of building materials has backfired, says Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford. “Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment officials have spent the… ...
    1 week ago
  • Smarter, Better, Cleaner, Stronger
    This Thursday Bill English will deliver his eighth Budget. Will it continue the trend of previous National budgets, making tertiary education less affordable, putting only token funds into innovation, and subsidising polluters? Budgets aren’t what they used to be. Once… ...
    GreensBy Gareth Hughes
    1 week ago
  • Govt must come clean on tax cuts in Budget
    National is making a mockery of the Budget process by dangling the promise of tax cuts but failing to include them in the Budget, says Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson. “National’s tax cut promises have turned into a farce. One… ...
    1 week ago
  • Grant Robertson Pre-Budget Speech
    Today I want to talk about success. As we know success can come in many different forms, from the fact you all made it here at such an early hour on a Monday, for which I am very grateful, to… ...
    1 week ago

Public service advertisements by The Standard

Current CO2 level in the atmosphere