web analytics
The Standard

Polity: Minimum pass rates at University are silly

Written By: - Date published: 11:55 am, March 8th, 2014 - 21 comments
Categories: education, Steven Joyce, tertiary education - Tags:

The original of this post is here.

Universities are back in session, and in staff rooms around the country faculty are again trying to design classes that meet the government’s mandatory minimum pass rates.

If Universities (and Polytechs, Waananga, and others) do not meet a government-imposed minimum pass rate (which ratchet up every year, and may go as high as 85%), then the institution risks losing some of its government funding.

That is crazy town.

Some tasks are really hard, and it has to be OK in New Zealand to say to more than 15% of the people who show up: “No, at the end of the class you really don’t get it.”

Also, many of us have heard about the string of hilarious fellas who enroll in a Women’s Studies paper in order to, ahem, study some women rather than actually engage with Women’s Studies research. This policy penalizes the professors who tell those people exactly how much they learned.

Why would we want to penalise institutions that stand up for quality?

Sure, it much doesn’t affect the relatively soft disciplines like political science, which I used to teach. But for subjects where there is no room for interpretation, it gets much harder. What is a chemistry professor supposed to do if her junior class attracts a lot of non-chemists, who it turns out suck at chemistry?  Surely it can’t be good for New Zealand if some of them pass the class so the chemistry department can keep its funding.

This one goes in the “I don’t get it” file.

21 comments on “Polity: Minimum pass rates at University are silly”

  1. Disraeli Gladstone 1

    Good post. Even for so-called “soft” discipline, quality is still important. There’s no point passing a person for an essay which is absolute tripe.

  2. RedLogix 2

    The problem is that by itself a pass rate does not tell you the difference between good teaching and good students. (And it tells you even less about the quality of the interaction between the two.)

    Measuring complex outcomes with a single scalar variable is always wrong. It’s exactly the same reason why Tories always imagine that quality of life can only be measured by how much money you have.

  3. blue leopard (Get Lost GCSB Bill) 3

    ” I don’t get it”

    Don’t you?

    Hopefully the following might give you some insight:

    Morons who are solely fixated on profit are unable to run universities let alone entire countries – Intelligent individuals do not solely fixate on profit – they know there is more to life, health, work, education and society than that.

    The morons want everyone to be as moronic as them.

    Vote the morons out is my suggestion.

  4. RJL 4

    I work at a tertiary institution and I can say without doubt that most tertiary institutions will already have internal processes that make frown faces at courses with pass rates less than 80-85%, and will also consider problematic any courses with pass rates close to 100%. Either is a sign that potentially something is wrong from an academic perspective, which is quite separate to any funding issue.

    Of course, the institution’s internal processes will give the academics concerned an opportunity to justify unusual pass rates — with the students all being rubbish a possible explanation. Although it is not a very plausible justification for a course with a reasonable number of students.

  5. Stephanie Rodgers 5

    Your example of people enrolling in Women’s (and Gender) Studies courses is funny! I took two myself back in the day, and can attest that if there were any such people in our class, they withdrew pretty quickly. That’s the thing about taking a Women’s Studies course for lolz: you’re now in a room full of people (both men and women) who really don’t have time for that kind of silliness.

  6. red blooded 6

    This crap has been imposed on schools for years. One of National’s core Education policies is that 85% of students should leave school with NCEA Level 2. This was announced at the same time that a review of standards saw most of the individual assessments at Level 2 become harder. Schools routinely have their results published in league tables and are identified as failing if they don’t meet this artificial target. Of course, this puts huge pressure on teachers to find soft options or get more involved than they should in the production of work that is going to be internally assessed.

    People who understand the difference between Communications Skills unit standards and English achievement standards can look at the record of a student with NCEA Level 2 and see what it’s saying, but how many people actually look that closely or recognise the differences?

    Artificial pass rates at tertiary level are a ridiculous idea. People may pay to go to university or polytech (& have to pay too much), but they don’t buy a qualification. That has to be earned and deserved.

    • greywarbler 6.1

      This is part of the target method of governance. You pollies dream up what you would like and then impose your wishes on the subservient entities that can bring this about. It’s expecting too much to set simple minimum standards on learning institutions. There are already research demands, publishing demands, and though it is reasonable to have expectations, they can’t be simple like FPP or holding out punishment of less money so squeezing more out of under-funded institutions. We aren’t a sausage factory.

      If only we could set targets on our politicians. If only we could take advice on what was achievable and threaten them with replacement if they did not fill expectations, or justify why we should risk for instance, our coastlines and food resources so we can make things and export more, in order to afford to import more because pollies have destroyed our economy by dropping reasonable protective tariffs to prevent dumping and under-cutting thus causing the inevitable rise in import substitution, to provide goods that we could make with the skills commonly found in our own country, thus affecting unemployment which rises as imports rise.

      • greywarbler 6.1.1

        ‘causing the inevitable rise in import substitution’
        I put that meaning to import substitution which I think is correct for these days. Import substitution used to be used about our own manufactured goods, when we were trying to limit the flow of money overseas and encourage business and jobs in our own country. Now we have reversed that excellent scheme on a shonky economic principle that has driven our country into near bankruptcy. It’s a cow of a situation. And only cows can save us from at least insolvency, the noble beasts that they are.

        Time for a change Labour, you sleeping princesses and princes, if you don’t wake up you’ll go into a coma, and we might have to slap you round the face to bring you back to consciousness.

  7. geoff 7

    The whole tertiary education system is a scam.
    Hordes of naive young people running up huge, debilitating debts just so a few thousand people get relatively good middle-class jobs.
    Standard bachelors degrees provide very little advantage in earning potential compared with people who have no tertiary education.
    But they help hide youth unemployment so who cares cos the debts that get run up are just private debts, right? Suckers!
    Except that the government considers student debt as an asset on their books so the greater students get into debt the better off the country is!
    Win Win!

    • Lanthanide 7.1

      “Except that the government considers student debt as an asset on their books so the greater students get into debt the better off the country is!”

      In strict accounting terms, perhaps. But for every $1 they spend on student loans, they realise 60c back in repayments, after accounting for inflation and foregone interest etc.

      The other factor in student funding for universities is that the government pays a huge amount of money to tertiary education providers, and this does not count as an “asset” of anyone’s books. For example, international students pay $37,100 per year to do an engineering degree at Canterbury, because they don’t qualify for any government funding. Domestic students pay just $6,725 for the same course. The government is chipping in $30,375 per engineering student per year before student loans even come into the picture.

      • Murray Olsen 7.1.1

        The government would be chipping in $30,375/year per engineering student if the cost to the university were $37,100 and no funds from elsewhere were used for that course. I wouldn’t be surprised if Canterbury were overcharging the international student. In fact, I’d be surprised if they weren’t.

        On pass rates – university administrations have been putting pressure on departments to pass more students for at least 20 years that I am aware of. Some departments will give conceded passes in the first year, which do not let the student enrol in any second year papers, but are not technically a fail. Even so, the level of a Bachelor’s degree has dropped to the extent that they are only useful for aspiring political candidates to put on their CVs.

      • Disraeli Gladstone 7.1.2

        The sums don’t quite add up. Universities make a profit off international students. Your post isn’t wrong, the government does chip in a fair bit after domestic students pay for their course, but:

        Domestic Fees + Government Funding < International Fees

  8. red blooded 8

    To be fair, education is not just about employment. That’s the line that gets pushed by the NACTs, who see no value in having people with developed analytical skills, roaming minds, wider cultural boundaries or a deeper insight into the workings of the world, of the human mind or power structures within society. My MA in Political Science did bugger all for my employment options, but that wasn’t my intention in pursuing that line of study. If we accept that tertiary education is only aimed at making people more employable then we keep on scaling down the arts, languages and social sciences. Society needs people with a balance of skills and knowledge, and not all if that relates to whatever type of employment they eventually take on.

    • blue leopard (Get Lost GCSB Bill) 8.1

      lol for National and Act having people with developed analytical skills, roaming minds, wider cultural boundaries or a deeper insight into the workings of the world, of the human mind or power structures within society really works against the chances of them ever getting elected …little wonder they are trying to ban such states of mind and being from occurring….

    • geoff 8.2

      I completely agree but loading young people up with debt that they will saddled with for most of their lives while in return they get a bit of paper that doesn’t help them earn more money is just a cynical scam.
      There has got to be a better way.

  9. Ad 9

    Minimum pass rates for tertiary education will generate the same false disciplines as exams for primary school students. From that one would conclude that tertiary educators would screen harder for the lazy, the morons, or the misdirected. This is where the hard ruler of performance metrics works better on those over 18 than it does on those under 10.

    On the downside, lecturers will find themselves, like primary school teachers, spending more than perhaps 25% of their time on the discipline of testing, rather than on teaching. This leads of course to inefficient teaching.

    On the upside, I would hope that it has a cooling effect on a percentage of both local and international students being used by their institutions as diploma-mills. While we have gone beyond the “bums on seats” funding model, there’s little doubt New Zealand’s top tier of universities is slipping. The global rank of that institution really does matter to the degree you hold, when you put it to the job market. I would hope this signal to effectively weed out the non-performers faster starts to address this global slippage by increasing the overall quality of students who take tertiary study.

  10. karol 10

    I agree that there shouldn’t be minimum pass rates, and the whole bums on seats approach undermines real education. Ultimately, it produces many students who just want to pass, rather than really engage with subjects.

    I disagree with the characetrisation of “soft disciplines”. I’ve taught some of that. Quite a few students have difficulty grasping some of the key social science concepts. I’ve also taught a few business/science students, more used to the whole right/wrong answer approach. Some have difficulty with developing an argument and/or grasping some sociological concepts. This is especially so when it comes to understanding the realities of life for many people – life is messy and doesn’t always fit into neat formula.

    A subject is only as hard as you make the pass criteria.

    • Stephanie Rodgers 10.1

      I agree with your point about ‘soft disciplines’! I still like to reminisce about my tutorial buddies who in third-year English papers had trouble identifying Swift’s Modest Proposal as satire, or in second-year German history were confused by the idea that Hitler’s anti-Semitism wasn’t seen as a detriment by many people …

  11. DS 11

    The real problem with this sort of nonsense is that it provides a massive incentive to dumb-down papers: lecturers become too terrified of failing anyone.

  12. vto 12

    imposing minimum pass rates at university would be like imposing minimum success rates in business

  13. Suzy Q 13

    I’m academic staff in one of NZ’s universities. We were simply informed by our School that our courses had to have a 65% completion rate, and that this percentage would likely increase. No instruction on how to carry out those orders properly, and certainly no resources to do it right (for instance, extra tutorials for struggling students). The punishment for not following the requirement is that the funding for the ENTIRE COURSE is withdrawn from the School’s budget retrospectively. RJL’s post about too high and too low failure rates is interesting, but I’ve never heard such a discussion in my university. Also strange is that the 65% completion requirement applies at all levels and all disciplines — I don’t know if that’s my university’s interpretation of the the government policy or the government’s actual policy. Either way it’s no way to run a quality higher education system. I’m curious if other countries in similar situations have done such things.

Recent Comments

Recent Posts

  • Auditor-General exposes Key’s scapegoating of Council
    The National Government's blaming of Auckland Council for the city’s housing crisis has been exposed as scapegoating in the Office of the Auditor-General’s latest report, Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford says. “The Auditor-General says Auckland Council’s part in fixing the… ...
    2 hours ago
  • Reform – not money – needed for meat sector
    The National Government continues to throw good money after bad at the meat industry instead of addressing the fundamental problem of its dysfunctional structure, Labour’s Primary Industries spokesperson Damien O’Connor says. “The latest Primary Growth Partnership grant to the venison… ...
    2 hours ago
  • Government cuts corners on school bus funding
    The safety of children – not cost cutting – should be the main objective behind the Government’s funding of school buses, Labour’s Education spokesperson Chris Hipkins says. “Buried in the detail of this year’s Budget are $19 million of funding… ...
    2 hours ago
  • Women the losers under National’s cuts
    National’s poor performance in appointing women to state sector boards is set to get worse with funding cuts to the nomination service provided by the Ministry for Women, Labour’s Woman’s Affairs spokesperson Sue Moroney says. “Minister for Women Louise Upston… ...
    2 hours ago
  • Help sought by agencies now asked to help
    The organisation Social Development Minister Anne Tolley has tasked with setting up an emergency hotline for stranded Relationships Aotearoa clients has just lost a bid for a government contract to launch a new national helpline, Labour’s Acting Social Development spokesperson… ...
    2 hours ago
  • Wellington got loud again on climate
    On Monday night, in Wellington, I attended the last of the Government’s climate target consultation meetings. It was quite well attended with maybe 150 people, not bad for a second meeting with very little notice and, as far as I… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie MP
    4 hours ago
  • Final nail in coffin for Solid Energy workers
    Today’s confirmation of job losses at Solid Energy’s Stockton and Spring Creek mines shows the urgent need for new economic opportunities on the West Coast, Labour’s MP for West Coast-Tasman Damien O’Connor says. “Our economy can no longer rely on… ...
    21 hours ago
  • Ramadi proves Iraq deployment high risk, low benefit
    The fall of Ramadi and the collapse of the Iraqi Army proves Labour was right to be concerned about the deployment of our troops to Iraq, Labour’s Defence spokesperson Phil Goff says. “The fall of Ramadi brings IS fighters within… ...
    21 hours ago
  • English admits new taxes on the cards
    Eight months after pledging “no new taxes” at the election Bill English today admitted he would bring in more sneaky taxes along the lines of the border tax, says Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson. “Not only did National bring in… ...
    22 hours ago
  • What the Dickens is going on at SDHB?
    Problems at the financially-strapped Southern District Health Board appear to stretch to its HR department with information obtained by Labour showing it still records staff leave entitlements using manual book-keeping methods. “The Board’s draft 10-year plan document forecasts a cumulative… ...
    22 hours ago
  • Teachers turn backs on new professional body
      The fact that just 56 per cent of nominations for the Education Council came from registered teachers shows the profession has turned its back on Hekia Parata’s new professional body, Labour’s Education spokesperson Chris Hipkins says. “Answers to written… ...
    23 hours ago
  • No spade work done on big building plan
      Only a quarter of the 500 hectares of Crown land the Government wants to use for new homes is understood to be suitable for building on, Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford says. “This was National’s bold new idea to… ...
    23 hours ago
  • National: Seven KiwiSaver cuts in seven years
    National’s campaign of KiwiSaver cuts has reached seven in seven years as it dismantles KiwiSaver block by block, Labour Leader Andrew Little says. “KiwiSaver is critical to establishing a savings culture in New Zealand but National has taken a jenga-style… ...
    23 hours ago
  • Tolley’s actions contradict reassurances
    Social Development Minister Anne Tolley has serious questions to answer following the forced closure of Relationships Aotearoa just days after her reassurances she was looking at ways to keep the service operating, Labour’s Acting Social Development spokesperson Annette King says.… ...
    1 day ago
  • SkyCity downsize another broken promise
    The downsized SkyCity Convention Centre does not deliver on the promised iconic world-class centre and shows the true extent of Steven Joyce’s incompetence, Labour Leader Andrew Little said today. “New Zealanders were promised an iconic world-class convention centre that would… ...
    1 day ago
  • Te Arawa partnership model a step closer
    Councils around New Zealand have an opportunity to improve their consultation with Iwi Māori by following Rotorua District Council’s Te Arawa Partnership Model, Labour’s Māori Development spokesperson Nanaia Mahuta says. “The Rotorua District Council will today decide whether to adopt… ...
    1 day ago
  • Labour mourns Dame Dorothy Fraser
    Labour Leader Andrew Little said the party is today mourning the loss of the youngest person to join the Labour Party, Dame Dorothy Fraser, who went on to be a stalwart of the Dunedin community and tireless worker for others.… ...
    2 days ago
  • The ultimate scapegoat: PM blames fruit fly for new tax
    The Prime Minister has found the ultimate scapegoat for breaking his promise not to introduce a new tax – the Queensland fruit fly, Labour’s Biosecurity spokesperson Damien O’Connor says. “John Key’s first policy upon taking office and assigning himself the… ...
    2 days ago
  • How many victims missing out on protection?
    Hundreds of domestic abuse victims could be missing out on getting protection orders because they are unable to get legal aid, Labour’s Justice spokesperson Jacinda Ardern says.“In the last two years some 351 people who applied for legal aid for… ...
    4 days ago
  • Government kicks hardworking whanau
    A major incentive to help young Kiwis and people on low incomes to start saving has been kicked out from under them with the National-led Government ramming through short-sighted legislation under Urgency today, Labour’s Maori Development Spokesperson Nanaia Mahuta says.… ...
    4 days ago
  • Speculator tax political stunt gone wrong
    Bill English’s admission he doesn’t know whether National’s new speculator tax will have any effect shows last weekend’s announcement by the Prime Minister was a desperate political stunt, says Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford. “This Government is so desperate to… ...
    4 days ago
  • The value of parenting
    This week, as part of the Budget, the government introduced a bill to address child poverty. This bill will require parents receiving income support to look for part-time work once their youngest child is three years of age rather than… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie MP
    4 days ago
  • Another new tax, another broken promise
    National has unveiled yet another new tax in this budget – a rural broadband levy that will almost certainly result in an immediate price hike for internet and telephone connections across New Zealand, Labour’s ICT spokesperson Clare Curran said “The… ...
    5 days ago
  • Anniversary of Sri Lankan Tamil Massacre
    This is not going to be a happy story but if the Green Party of Aotearoa doesn’t want to know who else will? May 18th marks the anniversary of what is known as the ‘Mullivaikal massacre’ of Tamils in 2009 at… ...
    GreensBy Catherine Delahunty MP
    5 days ago
  • Labour MPs join youth to take part in 40 hour famine
    A team of Labour MPs took part in the 2015 World Vision 40 hour famine and we were told by World Vision and the young people, that it was the first time MPs had joined them and how appreciative they… ...
    5 days ago
  • Rodeo: ‘Family entertainment’ or animal abuse?
    Recently  TVNZ ran a story with confronting footage showing rodeo animals being punched, repeatedly shocked with electronic prods and having their tails violently twisted over their backs. It was clear that significant force was being used behind the scenes to make… ...
    GreensBy Mojo Mathers MP
    5 days ago
  • Budget puts the squeeze on police
    The Government has cut funding to the New Zealand police force in the latest Budget, says Labour’s Police spokesperson Kelvin Davis. “The reduction is a whopping $15.3 million that could put front line officers at risk. ...
    5 days ago
  • Crucial social services take another hit
    The Government looks set to slash half a million dollars of funding for critical social services, including Women’s Refuge and Barnados, says Labour’s Social Development spokesperson Carmel Sepuloni “Taking $500,000 from organisations aimed at improving the lives of vulnerable families… ...
    5 days ago
  • Saying it Loud on Climate in Christchurch
    The Government’s Christchurch consultation meeting on New Zealand’s emission targets was inspiring – not for what was in the Ministry for the Environment’s (MFE’s) defeatist video about the obstacles to changing to a low carbon future, but for what the… ...
    GreensBy Eugenie Sage MP
    5 days ago
  • Budget silent on small business
    The Government has completely ignored one of the most important sectors of the economy – small and medium-sized enterprises – in Budget 2015, Labour’s Small Business spokesperson Jacinda Ardern says. "A stunning 41 per cent of jobs were created by… ...
    5 days ago
  • Thank you John, it’s been bloody marvellous
    The departure of John Campbell is a blow to current affairs investigative journalism, Labour’s Broadcasting Spokesperson Clare Curran says. “Campbell Live stood out in its field. Its axing comes as local broadcasting in New Zealand remains in a state of… ...
    5 days ago
  • KiwiSaver cut shows no long-term plan
    National’s cutting of the KiwiSaver kickstart is incredibly short-term thinking, typical of a Budget that is woefully short on ideas to generate wealth and opportunity, Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson says. “New Zealand’s savings rate is far too low. KiwiSaver… ...
    5 days ago
  • National hits the panic button for its 7th Budget
    National has hit the panic button for its 7th Budget in a desperate attempt to look like they’re taking action to reduce our shameful child poverty rates, but they are giving with one hand and taking with the other, Opposition… ...
    6 days ago
  • Panic and back-flips can’t hide twin deficits
    National’s token measures to fight fires they have left burning for seven long years can’t hide a Budget that is long on broken promises, short on vision and fails to reach surplus, says Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson. “After being… ...
    6 days ago
  • Auckland land measure seven years too late
    National are so desperate to look like they are doing something about the Auckland housing crisis they have dusted off Labour’s 2008 inventory of government land available for housing and re-announced it, says Labour’s housing spokesperson Phil Twyford. “Despite National… ...
    6 days ago
  • Access to gender reassignment surgery essential
    I was frankly disgusted to hear the Minister for Health say that funding gender reassignment surgeries is a “nutty idea”. A recent study found that in New Zealand 1% of young people identified themselves as transgender, and 3% were unsure… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie MP
    1 week ago
  • Global milk prices now lowest in 6 years
    The latest fall in the global dairy price has brought it to the lowest level in six years and shows there must be meaningful action in tomorrow’s Budget to diversify the economy, says Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson. “Dairy prices… ...
    1 week ago
  • Big risks as CYF checks stopped
    Revelations that Child, Youth and Family is no longer assisting home-based early childhood educators by vetting potential employees should set alarm bells ringing, Labour Children’s spokesperson Jacinda Ardern says. “Doing away with an extra mechanism for checking potential new employees… ...
    1 week ago
  • Housing crisis about real people not numbers
    The Government’s continued failure to tackle the housing crisis is seeing thousands of vulnerable Kiwis being kept off social housing waiting lists, while others, who are on the list, are being forced to live in cars and garages, says Labour’s… ...
    1 week ago
  • Housing crisis about real people not numbers
    The Government’s continued failure to tackle the housing crisis is seeing thousands of vulnerable Kiwis being kept off social housing waiting lists, while others, who are on the list, are being forced to live in cars and garages, says Labour’s… ...
    1 week ago
  • State of origin
    Kiwis are increasingly concerned about the food they give their families. New Zealand consumers have the right to know where their food has come from, particularly when it involves animals, and should be able to expect our Government to label… ...
    GreensBy Steffan Browning MP
    1 week ago
  • Relationships Aotearoa
    It is disturbing that Relationships Aotearoa, a voluntary organisation set up in 1949 to help couples struggling with their relationships following the upheavals of World War II, may be forced to close, says Acting Spokesperson for the Voluntary and Community… ...
    1 week ago
  • An economy that is just working for some is an economy that is not working
    The National Party presents itself as a great manager of the economy, but if the economy is only working for some we really need to question that assertion. Alongside the perpetually elusive surplus, the levels of risk in our economy are… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie MP
    1 week ago
  • An economy that is just working for some is an economy that is not working
    The National Party presents itself as a great manager of the economy, but if the economy is only working for some we really need to question that assertion. Alongside the perpetually elusive surplus, the levels of risk in our economy are… ...
    GreensBy Jan Logie MP
    1 week ago
  • House prices to a crack $1 million in 17 months
    The average Auckland home is on track to cost $1 million in 17 months’ time if nothing substantial is done to rein in soaring price rises, Labour’s Housing spokesperson Phil Twyford says. “Auckland’s house prices have skyrocketed 63 per cent… ...
    1 week ago
  • Vital support services can’t be left in lurch
    The National Government has big questions to answer about how a provider of services to thousands of vulnerable New Zealanders is set to fold, Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson says. Relationships Aotearoa which provides support and counselling to families, individuals… ...
    1 week ago
  • Treasury and IRD on a capital gains tax
    Both the Treasury and IRD have been advising the National Government on the benefits of a capital gains tax. Documents released to the Green Party under an Official Information Act request show that John Key has been selective with the… ...
    GreensBy Russel Norman MP
    1 week ago
  • Charity legislation needs review
    It is unacceptable that the big corporate based charities claim  millions in annual income tax exemptions, while small community based and operated non-profit organisations  struggle to gain official charity status, Labour’s acting spokesperson for the Voluntary and Community Sector Louisa… ...
    1 week ago
  • John’s panic-Key response to housing crisis
    John Key needs to tell New Zealanders what caused his sudden change of heart that led to the Government’s scrambled and last-minute housing measures, Opposition Leader Andrew Little says. “The Prime Minister’s sudden rush of blood to his head followed… ...
    1 week ago
  • Keep our Assets Christchurch Campaign: An update
    I recently presented my submission to keep Christchurch Council assets at the Christchurch City Council’s public hearings on its 10 year plan on 13 May. The hearings are live-streamed and recorded so you can watch them on www.ccc.govt.nz. The Council’s… ...
    GreensBy Eugenie Sage MP
    1 week ago

Public service advertisements by The Standard

Current CO2 level in the atmosphere